Technology

Macro-Sorb Technologies is committed to providing superior turf management products based on sound technological foundations.

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Enzymatic Hydrolysis

Macro-Sorb’s amino acid products are derived from an exclusive enzymatic hydrolysis process driven by processes used in advanced biotechnology. The process is completely natural and simulates protein hydrolysation, the method living plants use to create amino acids.

For the correct action of our enzymatic processes, strict control of time, pH and temperature is required.  Industrially, these processes can only be performed in pharmaceutical grade production facilities. The enzymes utilized are capable of selecting the amino acid attachment sites, so each amino acid is released without damage and maintains their original conformation. This exclusive enzymatic process along with careful selection of source raw materials allows Macro-Sorb to deliver consistent product specifications across each production batch.

Pharmaceutical-grade enzymatic hydrolysis produces a consistent output of high concentration, biologically-active amino acids.

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L-Amino Acids

Amino acids, the building blocks of proteins, are organic compounds containing an amino (-NH2) and a carboxylic acid (-COOH) group.  Although an organic chemist can synthesize thousands of amino acids, nature is very restrictive and uses only 20 amino acids arranged in different sequences to make proteins.  All proteins of animals and plants are exclusively made of L-amino acids (D-amino acids are extremely rare in nature).

Plants can synthesize their own amino acids through chemical reactions using significant expenditures of energy. However, when plants are under stress, they are unable to perform their normal physiological functions to make these amino acids.

Plants convert water and carbon dioxide into carbohydrates through photosynthesis. Carbohydrates are converted into more complex organic compounds through respiration, and amino acids are formed by the addition of nitrogen absorbed from the soil or foliar applications. These amino acids are used by the plant to make proteins, enzymes, chlorophyll and other organic compounds.

Golf course and sports field turfgrass is frequently growing under less than optimum conditions due to environmental, chemical, mechanical, traffic and disease stresses.  These stresses can cause plants to decrease or stop photosynthesis, decrease carbohydrate and protein production, increase respiration, increase the catabolism of structural proteins and carbohydrates, close stomata and reduce gas exchange, initiate foliar senescence, and eventually, cause the plant’s death.  Therefore, there is a need to aid the plant in overcoming stress to maintain more uniform, healthier and stronger turfgrass throughout the growing season.

Plants are able to absorb amino acids through roots and leaves, and transport them to other tissues where needed to perform their essential functions. Products containing free L-amino acids and peptides of low molecular weight are now being used to complement fertilization and other maintenance practices. 

In some industries, amino acid-based products are obtained by processing raw material protiens with acids or alkalis. Due to their unspecificity and aggressiveness, these substances considerably degrade the raw material and as a result, a low percentage of free amino acids are obtained, as opposed to the total quantity in the original protein. Additionally, the resulting amino acids can be degraded, which can lead to a racemization from L forms to D forms, thus losing their biological activity.

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Plant Utilization

Plants synthesize their own amino acids from inorganic nitrogen. The process includes the transformation of nitrate into nitrite and ammonium, and eventually into an organic molecule resulting in glutamic acid.  With glutamic acid as a base, the plant can synthesize all other amino acids through transamination processes. This process takes up much energy, and this is the reason why, under stressful situations for the plant, the direct supply of amino acids provides the energy for other physiological processes. Amino acids are easily absorbed through the leaves and roots, and can be directly used by the plant.

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Free vs. Total Amino

In an amino acid product, free amino acids are what really matter. “Natural” or “total” amino acids are the sum of free amino acids plus amino acids bound to protein or peptides.  The smaller the difference between total and free results in a higher quality amino acid product. Products with lower chemical hydrolysis ratios have more amino acids bound to proteins or peptides and therefore cannot function physiologically in the plant after application.

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Calcium and Boron 

Calcium, together with boron, exert their principal actions outside the plant cell. Their functions can be variable, but they are mainly structural, reinforcing the cell walls.  Calcium can be found inside the plant cell, normally located in the vacuole, in the form of an insoluble precipitate.

Calcium accumulation is useful for reinforcing the rigidness of the cell wall membrane, making it an essential element for the structure, stability and formation of cell walls.

Adequate boric nutrition facilitates calcium circulation inside the plant. Additionally, boron is necessary for pectin synthesis for cell walls. Up to 50% of a plant’s total boron concentration can be found in the cell walls.

More importantly, calcium can reduce boron availability in the soil and plant. Applications of calcium alone can cause a boron deficiency in some instances, therefore Quelant®-Ca is packaged with 0.2% boron to make the most of your calcium application.

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K Solubility in Hard Water 

Quelant®-K low pH fully dissolves in very hard waters. Incomplete solution and precipitation can be a problem with potassium products when mixed with hard waters (i.e. waters with a high content of calcium and magnesium). Quelant-K low pH is formulated to remain completely soluble over a wide range of concentrations and water conditions.

Appearance of the mixture of water with a hardness of 500 ppm with a sample of potassium and another with Quelant-K low pH at 3 mL/L. The solution with Quelant-K low pH is completely transparent while the water mixed with the standard potassium sample appears cloudy with product precipitation. 

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